Tag Archive for: Vulnerabilities

Custom Best Practice Check for Detecting Juniper Firewall Vulnerabilities

Name: Juniper Firewall Vulnerability Detection Description: This Custom Best Practice Check (CBPC) detects potential vulnerabilities in Juniper firewalls that could lead to unauthorized access and remote code execution.

Rule: Regex: ^ *web-management \{(\r?\n) *htt.*

 Explanation: This regular expression (regex) is designed to match specific configuration lines within a Juniper firewall’s configuration related to web management settings. It identifies lines that start with zero or more spaces, followed by the string “web-management {” and potentially followed by any characters related to HTTP settings.

 Purpose: Juniper firewalls are known to have vulnerabilities (CVE-2023-36844, CVE-2023-36845, CVE-2023-36846, CVE-2023-36847) that can allow unauthenticated attackers to upload arbitrary files and potentially execute remote code. This CBPC aims to identify configurations related to web management, as attackers often exploit such configurations to gain unauthorized access and control over the device. Detecting such configurations will help security teams identify potential vulnerabilities and take appropriate action.


  1. Log in to the RedSeal platform.
  2. Navigate to the “Best Practices Checks” section.
  3. Create a new CBPC and give it a meaningful name and description.
  4. Copy and paste the provided regex (^ *web-management \{(\r?\n) *htt.*) into the “Rule” field.
  5. Save the CBPC and run it against the target Juniper firewall configurations.

 Outcome: When the CBPC is run against Juniper firewall configurations, it will identify any lines that match the provided regex pattern. If matches are found, it indicates potential vulnerabilities related to web management settings that might need further investigation and remediation.

***Please note that while this CBPC can help in identifying potential vulnerabilities, it’s important to have a thorough understanding of your network environment and configurations. Always perform additional assessments and validations to ensure accurate results.***

Vulnerabilities Overview:

  1. CVE-2023-36846 and CVE-2023-36847: Remote Code Execution via J-Web:These two vulnerabilities allow an unauthenticated attacker to exploit the affected Juniper firewall devices. By sending specially crafted requests to the devices, attackers can upload arbitrary files to the file system through the J-Web interface. This can lead to remote code execution and compromise the integrity and availability of the firewall and the network it protects.
  2. CVE-2023-36844 and CVE-2023-36845: Unauthorized Modification of PHP Environment Variables:These vulnerabilities enable an unauthenticated attacker to modify specific PHP environment variables on the vulnerable Juniper firewall devices. By exploiting these flaws, attackers can manipulate the behavior of the firewall’s PHP environment, potentially gaining unauthorized access and control over the device.

Potential Impact: Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could result in:

  • Unauthorized remote code execution, enabling attackers to compromise the firewall and the entire network.
  • Unauthorized access to the firewall’s PHP environment, leading to potential data breaches, network disruption, and unauthorized control over the device.

Additional Resources:

RedSeal will continue to monitor and test vulnerabilities, please check back for updated versions with additional refinements. Let’s discuss your concerns and how RedSeal can help, contact us today.

What the Rockwell Automation ThinServer Vulnerabilities Mean for Industrial Cybersecurity

The cybersecurity landscape is an ever-evolving domain with threats sprouting up constantly. The recent revelation concerning vulnerabilities in Rockwell Automation’s ThinManager ThinServer has highlighted the urgency for robust cybersecurity measures in the realm of industrial control systems (ICS).

Understanding the Rockwell Automation ThinServer Vulnerabilities

Rockwell Automation’s ThinManager ThinServer, a product designed for thin client and RDP server management, recently came under scrutiny after researchers from the cybersecurity firm Tenable discovered critical vulnerabilities. Classified as CVE-2023-2914, CVE-2023-2915, and CVE-2023-2917, these vulnerabilities center on improper input validation issues. They can potentially allow attackers, even without prior authentication, to induce a denial-of-service condition, delete, or upload files with system privileges.

What’s most alarming is that an attacker only needs access to the network hosting the vulnerable server for exploitation. This means that if the server is connected and exposed online – against the vendor’s best practices – it becomes susceptible to attacks directly from the internet.

The potential fallout from a successful exploitation? Complete control of the ThinServer. This presents an enormous risk, especially when considering the critical role of ICS in managing and overseeing essential industrial operations.

Enhancing Industrial Cybersecurity with RedSeal Capabilities

This backdrop brings to the fore the vital role of cybersecurity solutions like RedSeal. For existing and prospective customers, leveraging RedSeal’s capabilities can be the game-changer in fortifying their cybersecurity infrastructure.

  1. Network Visualization: RedSeal provides a detailed view of network architectures, including potential access paths. By visualizing these paths, organizations can understand how a potential attacker might navigate through their infrastructure, enabling them to take preventive measures.
  2. Risk Assessment: RedSeal’s platform assesses network risk, helping businesses identify vulnerabilities like the ones discovered in ThinManager ThinServer. By pinpointing these vulnerabilities early, proactive steps can be taken before they are exploited.
  3. Validation of Network Segmentation: Often, best practices dictate that sensitive servers, like ThinManager ThinServer, should be isolated from general network access. RedSeal can validate the effectiveness of this segmentation, ensuring that the server isn’t inadvertently exposed.
  4. Incident Response: In the unfortunate event of a breach, understanding the scope and the affected areas quickly is paramount. RedSeal’s capabilities assist in narrowing down affected segments, making response measures more targeted and effective.
  5. Continuous Monitoring: With RedSeal’s continuous monitoring, organizations can stay abreast of their network’s security posture. This ensures that as networks evolve and change, security measures evolve in tandem.
  6. Compliance Assurance: Adhering to industry standards and compliance requirements is a non-negotiable in the ICS space. RedSeal aids in ensuring that the cybersecurity measures in place align with the requisite standards, thus minimizing potential legal and reputational fallout.

In an era where cyber threats are pervasive and continuously evolving, relying on advanced cybersecurity solutions like RedSeal is no longer a luxury but a necessity. The vulnerabilities in Rockwell Automation’s ThinManager ThinServer underscore the fragility of ICS environments and the dire repercussions of lapses in cybersecurity measures. For businesses operating in the industrial domain, it’s essential to stay a step ahead. By leveraging the multifaceted capabilities of RedSeal, organizations can not only shield themselves from present vulnerabilities but also future-proof their operations against emerging threats. In the battle against cyber adversaries, being prepared and proactive is the key to victory.

Cyber Insurance Isn’t Enough Anymore

The cyber insurance world has changed dramatically.

Premiums have risen significantly, and insurers are placing more limits on covered items. Industries like healthcare, retail, and government, where exposure is high, have been hit hard. Many organizations have seen huge rate increases for substantially less coverage than in the past. Others have seen their policies canceled or been unable to renew.

In many cases, insurers are offering half the coverage amounts at a higher cost. For example, some insurers that had previously issued $5 million liability policies have now reduced amounts to $1 million to $3 million while raising rates. Even with reduced coverage, some policy rates have risen by as much as 300%.

At the same time, insurers are leaving the field. Big payoffs in small risk pools can devastate profitability for insurers. Many insurers are reaching the break-even point where a single covered loss can wipe out years of profits. In fact, several major insurance companies have stopped issuing new cybersecurity insurance policies altogether.

This is in part to incidents like the recent Merck legal victory forcing a $1.4B payout due to the NotPetya’s malware attack. According to Fitch Ratings, more than 8,100 cyber insurance claims were paid out in 2021, the third straight year that claims increased by at least 100%. Payments from claims jumped 200% annually in 2019, 2020, and 2021 as well.

Claims are also being denied at higher rates. With such large amounts at stake, insurers are looking more closely at an organization’s policies and requiring proof that the organization is taking the right steps to protect itself. Companies need to be thinking about better ways to manage more of the cyber risks themselves. Cyber insurance isn’t enough anymore.

Dealing with Ransomware

At the heart of all of this drama is ransomware. The State of Ransomware 2022 report from Sophos includes some sobering statistics.

Ransomware attacks nearly doubled in 2021 vs. 2020, and ransom payments are higher as cybercriminals are demanding more money. In 2020, only 4% of organizations paid more than $1 million in ransoms. In 2021, that number jumped to 11%. The average ransomware paid by organizations in significant ransomware attacks grew by 500% last year to $812,360.

More companies are paying the ransom as well. Nearly half (46%) of companies hit by ransomware chose to pay despite FBI warnings not to do so. The FBI says paying ransoms encourages threat actors to target even more victims.

Even with cyber insurance, it can take months to fully recover from a ransomware attack and cause significant damage to a company’s reputation. Eighty-six percent (86%) of companies in the Sophos study said they lost business and revenue because of an attack. While 98% of cyber insurance claims were paid out, only four out of ten companies saw all of their costs paid.

There’s some evidence that cybercriminals are actively targeting organizations that have cyber insurance specifically because companies are more likely to pay. This has led to higher ransom demands, contributing to the cyber insurance crisis. At the same time, there’s been a significant increase in how cybercriminals are exacting payments.

Ransomware attackers are now often requiring two payments. The first is for providing the decryption key to unlock encrypted data. A demand for a separate payment is made to avoid releasing the data itself publicly. Threat actors are also hitting the same organizations more than once. When they know they’ll get paid, they often increase efforts to attack a company a second or third time until they lock down their security.

Protecting Yourself from Ransomware Attacks

Organizations must deploy strict guidelines and protocols for security and follow them to protect themselves. Even one small slip-up in following procedures can result in millions or even billions of dollars in losses and denied claims.

People, Processes, Tech, and Monitoring

The root cause of most breaches and ransomware attacks is a breakdown in processes, allowing an attack vector to be exploited. This breakdown often occurs because there is a lack of controls or adherence to these controls by the people using the network.

Whether organizations decide to pay the price for cyber insurance or not, they need to take proactive steps to ensure they have the right policies in place, have robust processes for managing control, and train their team members on how to protect organizational assets.

Organizations also need a skilled cybersecurity workforce to deploy and maintain protection along with the right tech tools.

Even with all of this in place, strong cybersecurity demands continuous monitoring and testing. Networks are rarely stable. New devices and endpoints are added constantly. New software, cloud services, and third-party solutions are deployed. With such fluidity, it’s important to continually identify potential security gaps and take proactive measures to harden your systems.

Identifying Potential Vulnerabilities

One of the first steps is understanding your entire network environment and potential vulnerabilities. For example, RedSeal’s cloud cybersecurity solution can create a real-time visualization of your network and continuously monitor your production environment and traffic. This provides a clear understanding of how data flows through your network to create a cyber risk model.

Users get a Digital Resilience Score which can be used to demonstrate their network’s security posture to cyber insurance providers.

This also helps organizations identify risk factors and compromised devices. Also, RedSeal provides a way to trace access throughout an entire network showing where an attacker can go once inside a network. This helps identify places where better segmentation is required to prevent unauthorized lateral movement.

In case an attack occurs, RedSeal accelerates incident responses by providing a more complete road map for containment.

Cyber Insurance Is Not Enough to Protect Your Bottom Line

With escalating activity and larger demands, cyber insurance is only likely to get more expensive and harder to get. Companies will also have to offer more proof about their security practices to be successful in filing claims or risk having claims denied.

For more information about how we can help you protect your network and mitigate the risks of successful cyber-attacks, contact RedSeal today.

Vulnerabilities Age Like Dynamite

In NSA: The Silence of the Zero Days, published in Data Breach Today, Mathew Schwartz discusses hackers’ rapid response to newly discovered flaws and/or exploits.

I was struck by a quote from David Hogue, the head of the NSA’s Cybersecurity Threat Operations Center (NCTOC). “Within 24 hours of a vulnerability or exploit being released, it’s weaponized and used against us.”

Vulnerabilities don’t get worse; they just get better for malicious actors. Like dynamite, they get more dangerous with age. Over time hackers develop new and more damaging ways to leverage known vulnerabilities. They become part of malware campaigns like WannaCry and NotPetya, which were based on existing vulnerabilities identified in the NSA leaked Eternal Blue exploit.

He also said, “… the existing state of network defenses wasn’t robust enough to make attackers have to rely on secret exploits that might get burned once used. ‘If you can live off the land, so to speak, you don’t need to dip into your toolkit.’”

The whole article is an excellent read and I recommend you do so. I have three main takeaways for government cyber leaders.

Worry about known vulnerabilities.

Rather than fret over exotic zero-day threats, focus on basic cyber hygiene. RedSeal can help by modeling your “as-built” network, including those in the cloud, by calculating all the ways data—and intruders—can move from one point to any other. Leveraging this knowledge of access, RedSeal ranks identified vulnerabilities based on the true risks to the organization, so your team’s effort is focused and maximized.

When zero days are identified, stay ahead of the onslaught.

When a zero-day exploit is made public, every hacker will be scanning for unpatched machines. RedSeal will identify the systems at the greatest risk and help identify the best course of action for each — whether applying a network change or patching the exposed systems.

Streamline and automate NSA’s Cybersecurity Threat Operations Center (NCTOC) best practices in your environment.

Applying NCTOC’s Top 5 SOC Principles to your organization, means using RedSeal to automate processes and free up humans to engage in high impact activities. RedSeal’s network modeling and risk scoring platform provides actionable intelligence for rapid investigation by identifying exposed assets and prioritizing actions.

Do you have a problem identifying and managing your network’s vulnerabilities? Click here to set up your free trial of RedSeal and choose the better way.

Vulnerabilities: The Weeds of Your Digital Terrain

RedSeal Blog - Vulnerabilities - The Weeds of Your Digital Terrain

In the warmer months when I’m not traveling I often get up early and wander my property pulling and spraying weeds. This is an endless and thankless task, yet a necessary evil to preserve my investment and maintain appearances. I am amazed how quickly weeds grow and by the places they find purchase. In just a few days, given the right conditions whole beds can be overtaken.

A few days ago I was meandering about my yard wondering why I don’t have a gardener when it struck me. My own personal battle for yard supremacy provides a great parallel to the efforts of cybersecurity professionals. It occurred to me that vulnerabilities are the weeds of the digital terrain. They are constantly popping up in the strangest places; you can never seem to get them all; and they can quickly get out of hand if you let your attention slip.

Just like weeds, all vulnerabilities are not created equal. Their type, and more importantly their location, are factors we need to consider. The poison ivy at the far end of the property where no one goes is a concern, but far less of one than the poison ivy on the kids’ play set. In the digital terrain, this is the equivalent of vulnerabilities on assets that don’t provide access to critical data verses those that do — whether directly or via pivot attacks. So, it’s not the type of vulnerability that’s important, it’s the exposure that vulnerability delivers to critical resources that is the true cause of risk. The common practice of focusing on CAT1 vulnerabilities is inherently flawed, since the severity of the vulnerability has little to do with the risk it causes for the organization.

People have been fighting weeds since the first crops were sown sometime around 9000 BC. We know weeds and have developed many tools to fight them, yet they persist. We pull them, spray them and set up lines of defense for them to cross. Sound familiar? This is akin to patching, firewalls, and micro segmentation.

I’m making two points here: first and most importantly I need a gardener, but also it is worth reminding ourselves that vulnerabilities aren’t going away anytime soon. Regardless of how much effort you put in, you’ll never have the necessary resources to patch them all. A better strategy is to prioritize what you patch based on the actual risk it causes for your organization. A CAT1 vulnerability isolated by firewall rules provides little risk, but that CAT3 vulnerability exposed directly to the internet may provide a beachhead that exposes your most important data and systems. To quote the old adage, we need to work smarter not harder. For cyber, that means moving from a patch-based methodology to one that focuses on risk.